Mobile Network Experience Report Germany November 2019

Germany

Mobile Network Experience Report
November 2019

Opensignal Active Userbase in Germany
Total Devices
686,559
Total Measurements
1,027,073,070
Data Collection Period
Jul 01 Sep 28, 2019

Opensignal is the independent global standard for analyzing consumer mobile experience. Our industry reports are the definitive guide to understanding the true experience consumers receive on wireless networks.

Author
Peter Boyland Senior Analyst

Key findings

Opensignal's awards continue to be dominated by Telekom

Telekom won five of our six national awards — keeping hold of four while grabbing our new Voice App Experience medal. But the leader was prevented from getting a clean sweep by Vodafone's victory in Latency Experience.

Telekom remains Germany's speed king — but has taken its foot off the gas

Telekom won both our Download and Upload Speed Awards comfortably. But our users on the operator have seen statistically no growth in the download and upload speeds they experience nationally over the past six months, allowing Telekom’s rivals to close the gap on the leader.

Telekom wins a very tight race for our Voice App Experience award

We saw a very close race in our brand-new Voice App Experience metric, with just 1.1 points (out of 100) separating all three operators. But Telekom's narrow lead saw it not only grab the prize, but tipped it over into a Good rating (80-87), meaning our users are generally satisfied when using voice apps, with few impairments in call quality.

Telekom's 4G Availability growth stagnates

Telekom kept hold of our 4G Availability award, but its score remained statistically unchanged since our last report. Meanwhile, its rivals are catching up, as Vodafone's users saw their 4G Availability rise by more than 2 percentage points, while third-placed O2 saw a 5-point improvement.

Vodafone wins Latency Experience, but O2 sees the biggest improvement

Vodafone kept hold of our Latency Experience award — but saw the least improvement of all three operators. It was our users on third-placed O2 who saw the biggest improvement of nearly 5ms, as our Vodafone users saw growth of less than 0.6 milliseconds, while Telekom's Latency Experience was nearly 1.8ms faster.

Introduction

In our latest Mobile Network Experience report on Germany, we can see that one operator continues to dominate our awards table. Telekom kept hold of four of our national awards, and won our new Voice App Experience medal — but was prevented from securing a clean sweep by Vodafone's victory in Latency Experience.

Despite its impressive awards haul, it's not all plain sailing for Telekom. We're seeing its lead eroding in several of our metrics. Its 4G Availability and Download Speed Experience scores have stagnated, and have statistically not experienced any growth in the past six months since our last report.

Telekom's growth in 4G Availability and Download Speed Experience is stalling

Telekom's rivals are now coming close in several metrics — with O2, in particular, deserving a mention for strong gains in Availability and Latency — and we will likely see Telekom lose some of its awards in the next year if these trends continue. But nonetheless, our Telekom users' average download and upload speeds are still well ahead of their closest rivals’.

There have been some big changes in the German telecoms landscape since our last report. The country's 5G auction ended in June, raising €6.5 billion from the sale of licenses in the 2 GHz and 3.6 GHz bands. All three of the existing operators acquired fresh spectrum — along with potential new entrant, United Internet's 1&1 Drillisch. The new player, which currently has a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) deal with O2, has stated it will launch its own 5G network and is in talks with potential 3G and 4G roaming partners, but has yet to publish a timetable for its plans.

Since the auction, both Telekom and Vodafone have launched commercial 5G services in several cities, although initial take-up seems sluggish — and there are questions about whether the average consumer in Germany is ready for 5G. But the country’s 5G networks are advancing: In our most recent analysis of the global 5G market, Opensignal found that just 10% of speed tests conducted in Germany from 5G New Radio (5G NR) enabled devices used an active 5G connection — the majority of speed tests continued to be on 4G — but Germany was second only to early 5G leader South Korea, which saw 20% of speed tests conducted from 5G NR devices using an active 5G connection.

At the dawn of 5G in Germany, this report provides an overview of the current mobile experience on the country's 3G and 4G networks. Looking at the 90-day data period from the start of July, we've measured the user experience across all our key metrics for Germany's three leading operators — O2, Telekom and Vodafone — both at a national level and in 14 of the country's largest cities.

Opensignal Awards Table

Mobile Experience Awards, Germany
November 2019, Germany Report
4G Availability
Video Experience
Voice App Experience
Download Speed Experience
Upload Speed Experience
Latency Experience
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Mobile Experience Awards Winners
November 2019, Germany
4G Availability
Video Experience
Voice App Experience
Download Speed Experience
Upload Speed Experience
Latency Experience
Download Image

Overview

Click on metric labels below for a quick preview
4G Availability
% of time
Telekom
85.9
Vodafone
81.4
O2
72.3
0 22.5 45 67.5 90
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
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National Analysis

4G Availability

After seeing some impressive increases in Telekom's 4G Availability in our last report, our users on its network have now seen this growth stagnate. Telekom kept hold of our award, but its score remains statistically unchanged from six months ago. Meanwhile, its rivals are closing the gap. Vodafone's users saw their 4G Availability rise by more than 2 percentage points to come within 5 points of the leader, while third-placed O2 saw the biggest improvement of 5 points. But nonetheless, the Telefónica operator remains 9 points adrift of its closest rival.

4G Availability
% of time
Telekom
85.9
Vodafone
81.4
O2
72.3
0 22.5 45 67.5 90
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
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Overall, 4G Availability in Germany is improving. But in our recent global State of Mobile Network Experience report, the country appeared in the bottom half of the table with a national average score of 76.9% — among the lowest in Europe, and behind many much less-developed mobile markets including Lebanon, Vietnam and Senegal. Also, another recent analysis found there is still a significant gap between the urban and rural 4G Availability experience, with our users in some parts of rural Germany still experiencing less than 50% 4G Availability. Germany's operators still have some work to do to improve both their global ranking and the 4G Availability of their rural users.

Video Experience

Telekom kept hold of our Video Experience award, with an increase in its score of over 2 points (out of 100) — the largest growth we saw among Germany's operators in the past six months. Second-placed Vodafone drifted a little further behind the leader, as our users on its network saw statistically no change in its score, while our O2 users saw a small improvement of nearly 1.4 points.

Video Experience
in 0-100 points
Telekom
72.6
Vodafone
68.7
O2
62.9
Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
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Video Experience
Supporting Metrics
in 0-100 points
4G Video Experience
74.0 (± 0.30) 71.4 (± 0.30) 66.4 (± 0.35)
3G Video Experience
61.0 (± 1.13) 52.7 (± 1.08) 51.4 (± 0.80)
+/- numeric values represent confidence intervals.
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Limited
4G Video Experience in 0-100 points
74 (± 0.30)
71 (± 0.30)
66 (± 0.35)
3G Video Experience in 0-100 points
61 (± 1.13)
53 (± 1.08)
51 (± 0.80)
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Inc.

These small increases in our users' Video Experience scores have not changed our operator ratings in this metric. Both Telekom and Vodafone's scores remain in our Very Good (65-75) ranking, meaning pretty consistent fast loading times and only occasional stalling across all resolutions. O2, meanwhile, stays in our Good (55-65) bracket, meaning its users are likely to experience slower loading and more stalling, especially at higher resolutions.

Voice App Experience

In this report, we will take our first look at Voice App Experience in Germany. This unique, first-of-its-kind metric measures the quality of experience for over-the-top (OTT) voice services — mobile voice apps such as WhatsApp, Skype and Facebook Messenger — using a model derived from the International Telecommunication Union for quantifying overall voice call quality with a series of calibrated technical parameters.

Voice App Experience
in 0-100 points
Telekom
80.0
Vodafone
79.1
O2
78.9
Impossible to communicate Unintelligible Very Poor Poor Acceptable Good Very Good Excellent
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
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Voice App Experience
Supporting Metrics
in 0-100 points
4G Voice App Experience
80.4 (± 0.28) 79.3 (± 0.33) 79.9 (± 0.26)
3G Voice App Experience
76.5 (± 0.92) 77.4 (± 0.87) 75.4 (± 0.56)
+/- numeric values represent confidence intervals.
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Limited
4G Voice App Experience in 0-100 points
80 (± 0.28)
79 (± 0.33)
80 (± 0.26)
3G Voice App Experience in 0-100 points
76 (± 0.92)
77 (± 0.87)
75 (± 0.56)
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Inc.

Telekom added to its award haul with a win in Voice App Experience — but it was a very tight race, with just 1.1 points (out of 100) separating all three of Germany's national operators. However, Telekom's slight lead tipped it over into our Good rating (80-87), meaning our users are generally satisfied when using voice apps, although they may occasionally experience minor quality impairments such as clicking sounds, distortion or low volume. Our users on Vodafone and O2, meanwhile, got an Acceptable rating (74-80), meaning they can expect more frequent and intrusive call quality impairments than their peers on Telekom's network.

Download Speed Experience

Telekom is still well ahead of its rivals in our speed metrics. But in Download Speed Experience, our users on its network have seen the operator take its foot off the gas, as we've seen statistically no increase in their score since our last report. O2 and Vodafone both increased their scores by over 1 Mbps to close the gap on the leader — but nonetheless, our Telekom users' Download Speed Experience is still over 11 Mbps faster than its closest rival.

Download Speed Experience
in Mbps
Telekom
33.1
Vodafone
21.8
O2
18.4
0 8.75 17.5 26.25 35
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
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Download Speed Experience
Supporting Metrics
in Mbps
4G Download Speed
35.7 (± 0.38) 24.3 (± 0.28) 21.4 (± 0.20)
3G Download Speed
10.3 (± 0.20) 7.7 (± 0.15) 8.4 (± 0.10)
+/- numeric values represent confidence intervals.
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Limited
4G Download Speed in Mbps
36 (± 0.38)
24 (± 0.28)
21 (± 0.20)
3G Download Speed in Mbps
10 (± 0.20)
8 (± 0.15)
8 (± 0.10)
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Inc.

Upload Speed Experience

In Upload Speed Experience, our Telekom users also saw their scores remain stagnant in the past six months — but the operator wasn't the only one to see no change in the speeds our users experience. Vodafone's users also saw static scores, while O2 was the only operator to see a 4% increase in its Upload Speed Experience score. Despite the lack of movement, Telekom remains well ahead of its rivals with a lead of nearly 4.5 Mbps, while third-placed Vodafone's static score has seen it drift a bit further behind the pack.

Upload Speed Experience
in Mbps
Telekom
11.1
Vodafone
6.3
O2
6.6
0 3.75 7.5 11.25 15
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
Download Image
Upload Speed Experience
Supporting Metrics
in Mbps
4G Upload Speed
12.2 (± 0.14) 7.1 (± 0.09) 8.2 (± 0.08)
3G Upload Speed
1.9 (± 0.05) 1.6 (± 0.05) 1.7 (± 0.03)
+/- numeric values represent confidence intervals.
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Limited
4G Upload Speed in Mbps
12 (± 0.14)
7 (± 0.09)
8 (± 0.08)
3G Upload Speed in Mbps
2 (± 0.05)
2 (± 0.05)
2 (± 0.03)
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Inc.

Interestingly, despite the increase in O2's overall Upload Speed Experience score, the operator's 4G-only Upload Speed has actually dropped slightly by around 3% since our last report. This small drop is not an immediate cause for concern because increases in O2 users' 3G Upload Speed and 4G Availability have meant this small drop has not pulled down the operator's overall Upload Speed Experience. But the overall pattern of stagnating speeds is something Germany's operators need to focus on if they wish to improve users’ mobile network experience.

Latency Experience

Vodafone kept hold of our Latency Experience award — its only win of our national award metrics, but enough to deny Telekom a clean sweep. But the winner saw the least improvement in the latency our users experienced of all three of Germany's operators. Our Vodafone users saw their Latency Experience improve by less than 0.6 milliseconds (ms), while Telekom's was nearly 1.8ms faster. But it was our users on third-placed O2 that saw the biggest improvement of nearly 5ms, to come within 4ms of its closest rival.

Latency Experience
in ms The lower the figure the better the latency
Telekom
40.6
Vodafone
39.3
O2
44.5
0 11.25 22.5 33.75 45
The brackets represent confidence intervals.
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Latency Experience
Supporting Metrics
in ms
4G Latency
38.6 (± 0.16) 36.9 (± 0.12) 39.7 (± 0.16)
3G Latency
58.2 (± 0.58) 53.2 (± 0.60) 60.6 (± 0.41)
+/- numeric values represent confidence intervals.
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Limited
4G Latency in ms
39 (± 0.16)
37 (± 0.12)
40 (± 0.16)
3G Latency in ms
58 (± 0.58)
53 (± 0.60)
61 (± 0.41)
Mobile Network Experience Report | November 2019 | © Opensignal Inc.

Regional Analysis

The close-run race in our national 4G Availability scores was reflected in our analysis of 14 of Germany's largest cities. Our users in all but two of these metros saw ties in this metric — with Telekom winning in Dortmund, while Vodafone took the prize in Hamburg. But it was our users in Nuremberg who enjoyed the highest 4G Availability, as the city saw all operators score over 90%.

If it was a close race in 4G Availability, it was even closer in our new Voice App Experience metric. Telekom won in Leipzig, but all the other cities recorded a draw — with 10 of them seeing three-way ties. But in Video Experience, Telekom was ahead of the pack with its users seeing wins in 11 cities and ties with Vodafone in the other three.

Given its dominance at the national level, it was not surprising to see Telekom win the lion's share of our speed awards. However, it wasn't able to claim a clean sweep: in Download Speed Experience, Telekom was held to a draw in three cities, while Vodafone claimed a rare win in Frankfurt. But our users in Berlin, Cologne, Dresden and Dusseldorf were able to enjoy the best of Telekom's super-speeds, as the operator scored over 50 Mbps average download in all four cities.

Select any region below to display individual breakdown

Berlin

4G Availability
in Berlin
in %
Telekom
88.5
Vodafone
90.6
O2
84.9
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Video Experience
in Berlin
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.7
Vodafone
73.6
O2
65.2
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Voice App Experience
in Berlin
in 0-100 points
Telekom
81.4
Vodafone
81.0
O2
80.3
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Download Speed Experience
in Berlin
in Mbps
Telekom
50.8
Vodafone
43.1
O2
22.5
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Upload Speed Experience
in Berlin
in Mbps
Telekom
15.4
Vodafone
8.4
O2
8.6
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Latency Experience
in Berlin
in ms
Telekom
38.7
Vodafone
37.2
O2
37.2
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Bremen

4G Availability
in Bremen
in %
Telekom
89.5
Vodafone
88.7
O2
84.8
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Video Experience
in Bremen
in 0-100 points
Telekom
77.2
Vodafone
67.6
O2
67.3
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Voice App Experience
in Bremen
in 0-100 points
Telekom
80.4
Vodafone
81.4
O2
81.8
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Download Speed Experience
in Bremen
in Mbps
Telekom
44.9
Vodafone
28.6
O2
25.0
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Upload Speed Experience
in Bremen
in Mbps
Telekom
13.7
Vodafone
7.0
O2
8.7
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Latency Experience
in Bremen
in ms
Telekom
42.8
Vodafone
40.1
O2
34.1
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Cologne

4G Availability
in Cologne
in %
Telekom
89.4
Vodafone
87.8
O2
88.3
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Video Experience
in Cologne
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.9
Vodafone
70.7
O2
65.9
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Voice App Experience
in Cologne
in 0-100 points
Telekom
80.2
Vodafone
80.7
O2
80.4
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Download Speed Experience
in Cologne
in Mbps
Telekom
57.4
Vodafone
35.5
O2
25.5
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Upload Speed Experience
in Cologne
in Mbps
Telekom
16.6
Vodafone
8.2
O2
8.9
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Latency Experience
in Cologne
in ms
Telekom
30.9
Vodafone
36.7
O2
40.8
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Dortmund

4G Availability
in Dortmund
in %
Telekom
92.3
Vodafone
79.5
O2
84.1
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Video Experience
in Dortmund
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.6
Vodafone
73.3
O2
69.8
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Voice App Experience
in Dortmund
in 0-100 points
Telekom
83.8
Vodafone
78.6
O2
80.2
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Download Speed Experience
in Dortmund
in Mbps
Telekom
43.7
Vodafone
29.5
O2
26.8
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Upload Speed Experience
in Dortmund
in Mbps
Telekom
12.9
Vodafone
6.2
O2
8.9
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Latency Experience
in Dortmund
in ms
Telekom
36.4
Vodafone
37.9
O2
41.7
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Dresden

4G Availability
in Dresden
in %
Telekom
89.5
Vodafone
88.3
O2
78.6
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Video Experience
in Dresden
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.2
Vodafone
66.8
O2
61.5
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Voice App Experience
in Dresden
in 0-100 points
Telekom
82.4
Vodafone
79.0
O2
81.3
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Download Speed Experience
in Dresden
in Mbps
Telekom
54.0
Vodafone
28.9
O2
11.4
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Upload Speed Experience
in Dresden
in Mbps
Telekom
16.9
Vodafone
7.6
O2
6.6
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Latency Experience
in Dresden
in ms
Telekom
35.2
Vodafone
39.0
O2
43.3
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Dusseldorf

4G Availability
in Dusseldorf
in %
Telekom
84.9
Vodafone
86.1
O2
85.0
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Video Experience
in Dusseldorf
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.3
Vodafone
72.6
O2
64.1
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Voice App Experience
in Dusseldorf
in 0-100 points
Telekom
82.0
Vodafone
80.4
O2
78.2
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Download Speed Experience
in Dusseldorf
in Mbps
Telekom
51.3
Vodafone
42.9
O2
20.6
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Upload Speed Experience
in Dusseldorf
in Mbps
Telekom
15.0
Vodafone
9.7
O2
6.9
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Latency Experience
in Dusseldorf
in ms
Telekom
31.9
Vodafone
35.1
O2
41.0
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Essen

4G Availability
in Essen
in %
Telekom
89.0
Vodafone
84.1
O2
85.2
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Video Experience
in Essen
in 0-100 points
Telekom
77.9
Vodafone
72.0
O2
60.2
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Voice App Experience
in Essen
in 0-100 points
Telekom
82.3
Vodafone
82.9
O2
81.1
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Download Speed Experience
in Essen
in Mbps
Telekom
47.3
Vodafone
31.8
O2
19.2
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Upload Speed Experience
in Essen
in Mbps
Telekom
16.0
Vodafone
8.0
O2
7.3
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Latency Experience
in Essen
in ms
Telekom
38.1
Vodafone
38.1
O2
44.1
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Frankfurt

4G Availability
in Frankfurt
in %
Telekom
87.8
Vodafone
88.1
O2
79.9
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Video Experience
in Frankfurt
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.4
Vodafone
73.5
O2
61.6
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Voice App Experience
in Frankfurt
in 0-100 points
Telekom
79.1
Vodafone
81.9
O2
77.3
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Download Speed Experience
in Frankfurt
in Mbps
Telekom
40.5
Vodafone
50.6
O2
16.0
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Upload Speed Experience
in Frankfurt
in Mbps
Telekom
15.8
Vodafone
11.2
O2
6.9
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Latency Experience
in Frankfurt
in ms
Telekom
33.7
Vodafone
32.4
O2
35.0
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Hamburg

4G Availability
in Hamburg
in %
Telekom
86.8
Vodafone
90.4
O2
81.5
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Video Experience
in Hamburg
in 0-100 points
Telekom
75.8
Vodafone
71.0
O2
65.6
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Voice App Experience
in Hamburg
in 0-100 points
Telekom
81.8
Vodafone
80.3
O2
79.8
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Download Speed Experience
in Hamburg
in Mbps
Telekom
45.3
Vodafone
36.6
O2
20.3
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Upload Speed Experience
in Hamburg
in Mbps
Telekom
15.3
Vodafone
8.6
O2
7.9
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Latency Experience
in Hamburg
in ms
Telekom
40.9
Vodafone
34.5
O2
33.7
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Hannover

4G Availability
in Hannover
in %
Telekom
88.1
Vodafone
89.7
O2
82.9
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Video Experience
in Hannover
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.7
Vodafone
66.1
O2
65.8
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Voice App Experience
in Hannover
in 0-100 points
Telekom
81.8
Vodafone
81.5
O2
79.8
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Download Speed Experience
in Hannover
in Mbps
Telekom
47.7
Vodafone
21.0
O2
23.5
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Upload Speed Experience
in Hannover
in Mbps
Telekom
12.5
Vodafone
6.7
O2
7.4
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Latency Experience
in Hannover
in ms
Telekom
32.5
Vodafone
33.2
O2
49.1
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Leipzig

4G Availability
in Leipzig
in %
Telekom
89.0
Vodafone
89.0
O2
85.9
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Video Experience
in Leipzig
in 0-100 points
Telekom
73.6
Vodafone
72.3
O2
66.7
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Voice App Experience
in Leipzig
in 0-100 points
Telekom
83.5
Vodafone
79.3
O2
79.5
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Download Speed Experience
in Leipzig
in Mbps
Telekom
47.5
Vodafone
24.4
O2
27.1
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Upload Speed Experience
in Leipzig
in Mbps
Telekom
15.3
Vodafone
7.2
O2
9.6
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Latency Experience
in Leipzig
in ms
Telekom
35.5
Vodafone
32.7
O2
34.8
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Munich

4G Availability
in Munich
in %
Telekom
85.6
Vodafone
89.0
O2
87.3
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Video Experience
in Munich
in 0-100 points
Telekom
75.8
Vodafone
72.0
O2
67.2
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Voice App Experience
in Munich
in 0-100 points
Telekom
81.5
Vodafone
82.0
O2
80.6
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Download Speed Experience
in Munich
in Mbps
Telekom
37.1
Vodafone
36.1
O2
27.9
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Upload Speed Experience
in Munich
in Mbps
Telekom
14.8
Vodafone
8.9
O2
9.0
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Latency Experience
in Munich
in ms
Telekom
35.7
Vodafone
36.1
O2
42.3
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Nuremberg

4G Availability
in Nuremberg
in %
Telekom
90.7
Vodafone
90.9
O2
90.3
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Video Experience
in Nuremberg
in 0-100 points
Telekom
75.7
Vodafone
74.5
O2
66.1
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Voice App Experience
in Nuremberg
in 0-100 points
Telekom
81.9
Vodafone
78.9
O2
82.1
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Download Speed Experience
in Nuremberg
in Mbps
Telekom
43.2
Vodafone
32.6
O2
27.9
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Upload Speed Experience
in Nuremberg
in Mbps
Telekom
11.7
Vodafone
9.8
O2
10.2
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Latency Experience
in Nuremberg
in ms
Telekom
33.4
Vodafone
34.0
O2
37.6
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Stuttgart

4G Availability
in Stuttgart
in %
Telekom
82.3
Vodafone
88.0
O2
85.5
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Video Experience
in Stuttgart
in 0-100 points
Telekom
76.4
Vodafone
69.6
O2
69.6
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Voice App Experience
in Stuttgart
in 0-100 points
Telekom
83.6
Vodafone
81.4
O2
81.0
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Download Speed Experience
in Stuttgart
in Mbps
Telekom
44.4
Vodafone
43.0
O2
28.6
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Upload Speed Experience
in Stuttgart
in Mbps
Telekom
13.8
Vodafone
9.5
O2
9.3
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Latency Experience
in Stuttgart
in ms
Telekom
37.8
Vodafone
33.8
O2
37.2
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Opensignal measures the real-world experience of consumers on mobile networks in the places they live, work and travel.

We continually adapt our methodology to best represent the true experience of smartphone users. Therefore, comparisons of the results to past reports should be considered indicative only.

For every metric we calculate statistical confidence intervals indicated on our graphs. When confidence intervals overlap, our measured results are too close to declare a winner. In those cases, we show a statistical draw. For this reason, some metrics have multiple winners.

In our bar graphs we represent confidence intervals as boundaries on either sides of graph bars. In our supporting-metric charts we show confidence intervals as +/- numerical values.

More about Methodology

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For every metric we calculate statistical confidence intervals indicated on our graphs. When confidence intervals overlap, our measured results are too close to declare a winner. In those cases, we show a statistical draw. For this reason, some metrics have multiple operator winners.

In our bar graphs we represent confidence intervals as boundaries on either sides of graph bars.

In our supporting-metric charts we show confidence intervals as +/- numerical values.

Why confidence intervals are vital in analyzing mobile network experience

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